We are deeply thankful to all those who participated in the discussions at the Chicago AAG Meeting's double session on the atlas for providing many of these ideas, considerations and topics. The tentative outline for the Atlas includes the following:
- Definitions of Peace: can include discussions such as
- Multiple perspectives/understandings of peace, perhaps even sectioning the Atlas according to them, e.g., (i) peace as absence of conflict and violence, (ii) peace as independent, multifaceted quality including justice (social, economic, political, and environmental), quality of life, sustainability etc.
- Considerations of “measuring the unmeasurable” (see Cutter, Golledge and Graf, 2002)
- How geography and geographers can contribute to the study of peace and peace mapping
- Cartographies of peace and mapping: the role of maps in peacemaking; cartographic and GIS issues related to conflict areas and disputed zones
- Critical Cartography, and alternative geographies and cartographies:
- Challenging power relations and standard language/understandings of “peace” in favor of local and contextual understandings
- The obscuring of violence in peace and peace terminology (e.g., sexual violence by peacekeeping forces, corruption and humanitarian aid)
- Representational issues using traditional/existing peace data
- Conflicts inherent in certain peace data itself, e.g., the index of peace
- Considerations of peace as related to non-human entities (environment, animal welfare, etc)
B. Case Studies at various scales
C. Information through maps/text/other media about peace-related topics as below.
Suggested Topics for the Atlas:
First, we will need to explore all topics that we think need to be included and later organize them into major headings: some of the suggested ideas for the major headings are below. We have a breakdown of subheadings within these headings, which will be shared as more ideas come in. We also need to identify who would be willing to work on which topic, so we request that you share that interest with us as well. For each topic, we also need to know the existing data sources and what data can be generated.
The list below includes ideas generated pre-and-post Chicago session discussions. Please feel free to add to the list. Final order and grouping will be decided later when the full list is finalized. Formal instructions on when and how Atlas items and materials should be submitted will be circulated once that listing is complete.
- Background maps on topics such as ethnic/linguistic/religious patterns, and correlated conflict maps based on these grounds
- Global trends in armed conflict
- Historic maps (e.g., N. J. G. Pounds, N. Spykman, G. Taylor, et al.)
- Historical geographies of non-violence, e.g., legacies of pacifist thinkers and movements/other thinkers they inspired
- Intertwining of war/conflict and peace: e.g., Sartre's chairing of the Russell War Tribunal and flowing from that, mapping how information about violence has been used to foster peace; veiling of violence in peace initiatives (see #4 in section above)
- Geographies and networks of groups promoting peace, cooperation and healing (peace groups, youth clubs, pacifist groups with names, addresses, website info, etc.)
- Treaties, regions of cooperation, consensus building efforts and related maps
- War, military, and the Military Industrial Complex
- Pre and post-conflict maps (e.g., the Balkans, SE Asia, etc.)
- Existing conflicts: border disputes, land/water claims, etc.
- Reviews and ratings of countries by rights and/or justice organizations such as Human Rights Watch, Freedom Watch, etc.
- Driving forces of peacetime economies as opposed to military economies and the arms sales network
- Budgets for peace (see for example U.S. Institute of Peace budget)
- Global Peace Index (existing, and amended—see below);
- Gross National Peace Index (devise one)
- Quality of Life index (by country and also for cities: best places to live, life expectancy, etc.
- Indices with bearing on quality of life (various rights, freedoms, etc):
- Peace Programs and Degrees (Peace and conflict resolution in education (programs offered), and research/praxis (institutes, centers)
- Culture, art and representation in relation to peace (symbolic and spatial), with discussion of art and representation as peace facilitators/builders
- Peace and literature
- Peace zones: DMZ, peace corridors (Sri Lanka, Antarctica, Outer Space, etc.),
- Pacifist colonies(e.g. in Colombia and elsewhere)
- Peacekeeping forces: (nationalities represented) in different locations, costs (total, and who contributes most to UN and regional efforts), and hidden violence (e.g., sexual assault by peacekeepers)
- Humanitarian aid/relief examples (for disasters: interfaith, interregional, etc.)
- Demining efforts
- Everyday peace activities (maps show location of those housing the homeless, feeding the hungry, empowerment centers, drug rehabilitation spouse abuse centers, pro bono legal groups, etc.) – would be desirable to have a set of these activities for cities in different countries
- Conscientious objectors: major source regions
- Public participation GIS (PPGIS) maps (e.g., local level issues about human rights, agrarian reform, etc.)
- Biographies of Nobel Peace Prize and other Peace Prize Winners
- Home countries and preferred causes (peace, environment, education, children’s rights etc) of Nobel and other Peace Prize winners
- Google earth images and/or mapping of
- Disputed boundaries and contested areas (terrestrial and maritime)
- Divided cities (Jerusalem, Belfast, Nicosia, etc.), perhaps with discussions
- Please note that Google Earth terms and conditions of use specify that the images may not be modified in any way or form, and must appear with the proper attribution of source.
- Votes related to peace issues (UN votes related to peace, e.g., nuclear disarmament, apartheid, Tibet, Palestinian rights, etc.; popular or parliamentary votes in countries or cities related to peace issues)
- Visible, invisible and frozen conflicts
- Environment, sustainability and related matters, including those related to vulnerability, mitigation and adaptation
- Climate change and related conflicts over changing resources and their access and control
- Climate refugees
- Sustainable development as fostering peace/peaceful living (including but not limited to sustainable agriculture practices)
- Environmental refuges
- Non-human peace considerations (animals rights/life, etc)
- Structural violence and structural approaches to its reduction/alleviation—can use gender, ethnicity, sexuality, (dis)ability, refugee status etc. as analytical bases)